how to write an essay report

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When it comes to paying for college, scholarships are the best form of financial aid, since they offer students free money that never needs to be repaid. The scholarship essay is arguably the most important part of the application and should be well-thought-out. The essay is esl letter proofreading websites online chance to let your personality and life experiences shine through, giving you the opportunity to stand out from other applicants. The best way to get an idea of what scholarship committees are looking for is to look over scholarship essay examples from past winners. Take some time to analyze the writing style, think about the strong points, and consider how you can improve.

How to write an essay report summer vacation essay in urdu

How to write an essay report

It is well known that time constraints are a barrier in distance learning, and you may well have to be satisfied with doing what is good enough, whatever your circumstances. Look again at the discussion of the purpose of an essay in Activity 4. Your aim should be to do the best you can in the circumstances, to learn from the experience and benefit from your tutor's comments so that you can improve for the next time. Note down in your Learning Journal what you think are the advantages and disadvantages of looking at the title before and after starting to work through the relevant section of your course.

There is no right or wrong approach and again, much may depend on the amount of time you have available and your own preferred style of learning. What do you need to know about your assignment? Most importantly, what it's about i. Once you have worked this out, you are in a better position to gauge how much you already know and how much you will need to find out. Here are some assignment titles from a range of different courses.

Although the subject matter may not be familiar, try to put into words how you would explain to someone else what each question is about. Outline the Marxist model of class divisions. How does the growth of the middle class affect the model? Compare and contrast the differences in state development of any two nineteenth century European countries or empires.

In general, Victorian culture was activated by a dislike of industrialisation and urbanisation: the country was seen as a repository of enduring values. Do you agree? Based on knowledge of your organisation, or one you know well, and using concepts and methods from Unit Discuss relevant coping strategies as they are applied, or could be applied, to these issues.

Describe and contrast two African poems and either one African story or piece of African music, which you have studied in the course so far. Relate this to the economics and politics of contemporary development. What are the similarities and differences between the mineralogical compositions of the basalt, S3, and the meteorite, EETA ? It isn't easy, is it? What would your tutor say if you wrote all you know about Victorian culture? So, what would your tutor say if you had covered these specific aspects of Victorian culture, but in a purely descriptive way?

The feedback could well say that, although you showed a good understanding of these issues, you did not say whether or not you have agreed with this suggestion, as the essay title requires. If you had done that, you would get a good grade. Take another look at the titles in Activity 9. For each of them, indicate which of the following tasks you are being asked to do:.

Now look at the title of your next assignment. Even if you are being asked to comment on one particular set of ideas or concepts, it is usually expected that you have considered alternatives — and these may contribute to your analysis. Do any of these questions apply to your assignment, or are you being asked to do something quite different? If so, what? If you are still not sure, contact your tutor for reassurance or clarification. Or perhaps you could check your reading of the question with another student, to see if your interpretation of it is similar to his or hers.

Remember, this is still your first — almost surface — reading of the question. It is important to keep your options open. Don't rule anything out at this stage. Don't worry: essentially all it involves is finding out more about the topic in hand. Let's use a dictionary as an example. Indeed it did, for three phrases not only confirmed our understanding of the word but also gave us a way forward that might be helpful to you.

These three phrases tell us that research is:. If you look again at Figure 1 you will see that there is an arrow linking the researching stage with the question. This is to make sure that your answer will be focused and really address what the question is looking for. You might also like to look back at Activity 9 , which dissects a question.

In short, researching something can clarify or explain, but also may spark off further thoughts which can lead you deeper into your topic. Any guidance notes you may have been given will sometimes tell you exactly which sections you need to look at. But don't forget that your course materials encompass more than just these texts.

Your own notes of what you have been reading or watching; from tutorials, or from observations or experiments you have been carrying out. Newspaper articles or reviews, chosen carefully, can be a useful extra up-to-date source for some courses. Of course, there are many more sources available to you through libraries or the internet. Your course materials may also provide reading lists.

If you have time to undertake further research, that's fine and is good academic practice. Certainly you will not lose marks if you restrict yourself to the course materials; it is how you answer the question that gives the grade, not how much you know. You can always follow up some of the suggested extra reading once the course has finished.

At this point you are likely to have a great deal of material and many ideas to hand, most probably in note form. Now is the time to start refining and focusing. You may have been doing this already, as you have carried out your research and thought over your findings. Planning is about creating a framework that will help you to make choices about what needs to be included in your assignment and what doesn't.

Some people feel they don't need to plan: starting to write helps them know what it is they are going to say. If you recognise yourself here, we suggest you consider the points we raise in this section. Why is planning a piece of writing important? Take a few moments to jot down your thoughts in your Learning Journal. Even short pieces require planning so that you are concise and to the point.

As the required length and level of complexity of a piece of writing increase, so does the need to organise your ideas. Table 2 highlights the elements of a science or technology report, though the same general principles apply in other disciplines too.

You need to assemble and order your material, perhaps under a set of headings which can be added to or sub-divided. Your plan will help you to include material that is relevant and to the point. Carefully read the following short essay. Try to identify its strengths and weaknesses in terms of planning. Take your time, but don't think you need to be familiar with the content, you are trying to find what provides the writing's framework. Government bodies and the universities are committed to a policy of widening access to higher education.

In the attempt to develop a trained, educated workforce, there is greater flexibility in terms of entrance requirements and routes to a degree. If you are 21 or over and do not have conventional qualifications you may be given credit for your life and work experience. Everyone of them knew more than I did and indeed they all knew more than Dickens about the lives of workers in heavy industry.

The mature student has often learned a powerful work discipline and can find self-directed learning difficult to adjust to. The mature student may also work full-time and have a home to run. Despite enthusiasm for returning to study, the mature student may be scared by comparing themselves to younger students who seem very quick having spent their recent years in full-time education. Your degree certificate is evidence that you have taken the opportunity that you missed when you were younger, it tells people that you have reached a certain level of academic attainment, that you have time management and priority setting skills, and that you have shown sustained interest, commitment and self-discipline.

As I mentioned earlier, increasingly people all over Europe are realizing that education and learning are lifelong processes, much too valuable to belong only to the young. The oldest Open University graduate is More and more mature students are entering Higher Education. In , the first 24 Open University students began their studies.

In , there were more than students registered. At least 2 million people have studied with the Open University. People are living longer and having fewer children. Changes in the workplace may mean that older workers have to retrain and seek a new career. The mature student may find it difficult to make room in their lives and their homes for study. Many people like to shut themselves off from the rest of the family, without interruptions but this is almost impossible without the support of your partner and children.

It is much easier for young people to be selfish and shut themselves off. They don't have as much to worry about as older students. It is even more difficult if you are a single parent who has to go out to work as well as taking care of children, along with studying.

It is a really big step to add to a busy life at work and at home and start to study, but you do broaden your outlook and the range of ideas and people that you are acquainted with. The self-discipline and motivation that you need to develop will be a great help in the future.

Once you have finished studying it may still be difficult to find a different job because of ageism, employers may think that you can't be as quick or as full of ideas as a younger graduate. Philippa Gregory , Foreword in Taggart, C. The writer does seem to know what is important to get across. But, there doesn't seem to be much of a framework and so the ideas tend to get lost. This seems to be one of the major problems.

There is good material here but the writer doesn't seem to know which facts are more important than others, there is no real attempt to classify or group points in order to create a sense of flow, of building an argument. The writer certainly has opinions about the issues that a mature student needs to overcome, but these don't appear to be in any particular order. The quote about the steelworkers is really appropriate and grabs the attention of the reader, but it isn't linked to the idea of the mature student's life experience mentioned at the end of the first paragraph.

This takes away some of its impact and probably means that the writer would not get as many marks for its inclusion as she or he might have done. The important thinking over of the issues doesn't seem to have happened. The more time we spent thinking about this — reflecting on it — the more it seemed to us that the key is direction: if you can give your writing direction, then the rest will follow.

In other words if you have a case to put, an argument to make, this provides the essay's direction; the elements listed above will then slip into place much more easily. Having established some general principles, try now to subject your own work to the same scrutiny. On a superficial level, even the appearance of work can be a give-away and betray a lack of planning.

Solid blocks of text can look overwhelming. You should normally aim for an average of three or four paragraphs per side of word-processed A4 paper. Solid blocks of text imply that the writer hasn't taken the time or is unable to organise the material. Too much in brackets?

Something is in the wrong place or is not strictly relevant, go back to planning. Can you think of some other warning signs, things that you write when you have lost your way in an assignment? Having discussed the reasons to plan writing and the impact planning may have, now we need to look at planning itself and its two stages.

To begin your planning, you need to generate ideas or brainstorm. At this stage, you are including everything that you think may be relevant. Nothing should be dismissed yet; this part is about gathering your resources and your thoughts. This isn't everything, but it is a start and is helpful in understanding what the question requires.

The important thing to remember is that anything that comes to mind may be relevant, leave nothing out at this stage. We started by grouping together our ideas and material for the essay on the possible advantages of being a mature student. This helped us to create a mind-map by seeing where links could be made and so made it much easier to decide where the weight of evidence was taking our argument.

Figure 2. Can you see the advantages of using this type of approach to planning? Grouping the parts of your assignment together and making links helps to ensure that you avoid a disjointed response to the question. It can also show how balanced your answer is going to be: are there too many points on one side or does it appear to be balanced? Part 1 Now return to your most recent assignment and try to construct a similar map in order to reveal its underlying structure.

Part 2 Having done this, make a note of what worked well and what you might do differently next time. Try to use this activity as an opportunity to improve how you approach future assignments. Did you consider all parts of the question?

Did you write yourself into a dead-end? Was the balance right? Was there a clear sense of direction? Take account of these points and see how you can make things better next time. You have now reached the stage when it is time to translate your plan, whatever its form, into the assignment itself. It is likely that this will be a first attempt at the exercise — a first draft.

You may be one of the lucky few who only needs to write one draft. Or, if you have taken some time over your planning, one draft before the final version may be enough. But if you are finding it difficult to reconcile opposing points of view or to fit in a great deal of information, you may need two or three drafts.

Finally, if you feel you need to write lots of drafts before you are satisfied with the final product, ask yourself why it is necessary. What might you do to reduce the number of drafts and thus save time? What is the difference between the appearance of your plan and the assignment itself? Note down the steps that you must take to convert one to the other. Your plan only needs to make sense to you. It may be diagrammatic in form, using circles and arrows and abbreviations.

It is the bare bones of your assignment. It is also disposable and changeable. The assignment itself must be understandable to anyone who is marking it, as certain expectations will need to be met. You will find help in any guidance notes you've been given for your course. Reading these is just as important as interpreting the assignment title as they will explain the conventions that you are expected to abide by in shaping your piece of writing.

For instance: if it asks for words in continuous prose, it would not be a good idea to write words and use sub-headings. A useful way of converting your plan into a first draft of your assignment is to number each of the areas you want to include you may have already linked them with arrows. This confirms the order in which you want to present ideas and ensures a logical flow.

Then, cross off each area once you have written about it, so there is no danger of repeating yourself. This can be encouraging by showing you how much progress you are making. If you would like some practice in this, try using Figure 2 as a model to work on.

As you may remember from Activity 3 , the three general principles of a report whether it is of a social sciences investigation or a scientific experiment are:. You will need to make some decisions, not only about what to leave out because it isn't particularly relevant but also about how to present what you are including to best effect:. Diagrams, tables and graphs may help to present your results with greater clarity. Headings or sub-headings, numbered paragraphs and bullet points can also help to emphasise the main issues.

Here is a plan on how to lay out the report of a social sciences investigation, though there are common elements with reports produced for other purposes. The language used in a report is usually straightforward and to the point. The report's structure and organisation make it easy to identify the various parts, and to find specific items of information quite quickly. As you may remember from Activity 4 , the main elements of an essay are:.

Now that you are beginning to draft, keep the assignment's title in front of you. Refer back to it regularly in ordering your material. Are you doing what you are asked to do, or are you writing about what you want to write about? The introduction of a report has a very specific role, and the range of approaches you may take is fairly limited. The function of such an introduction is to:. It may not do all of these things. A fuller introduction, which may be preferable if you are still developing confidence in your writing, could include any or all of the following points:.

Look back at Section 1. It is longer than the introduction that will be required for one of your assignments: our constraint was the number of pages, not the number of words. But does it fulfil any of the above criteria? We have certainly outlined our aims and objectives; we have indicated the limits to the course — our writing assignment; but we haven't provided much background information or context.

A group of students attending a writing workshop were asked to identify the first task in preparing an assignment. Do you agree that writing the introduction should be your first priority when working on your first draft? If you disagree, why? People vary in whether they prefer to write the introduction at an early stage or when they have almost completed your assignment. Is this how you feel? Though an assignment is an exploration of a topic, it requires a sense of direction, of building a case or argument in a logical manner.

Imagine you need to ask your tutor for an extension to the cut-off date for an assignment. You need to persuade him or her that you have a good case. In practice, of course, you would not be under so much pressure to explain. We have chosen this as an example because the situation may be familiar to you. If you were the tutor, would you consider all of these to be good reasons for the request?

Would you agree that some reasons are stronger than others? Maybe those students whose circumstances have changed unexpectedly have a better case than others who could have foreseen problems and should have been able to plan around their difficulties. Maybe you would look less favourably on b because you would feel that the student need not have got him or herself into that situation and in any case has got his or her priorities wrong. But look at c and e again.

On the face of it, these reasons may not be as strong as, say, d but if you were to enquire further with your student, you might discover there were other things underlying the lack of time and concentration. Perhaps the student with reason c is caring for an elderly relative for whom respite care had fallen through. Maybe the student with reason e is depressed and on medication.

These two students would both have a good case but have not presented it very well. Even the student with reason b may have an acceptable explanation for the sudden influx of visitors. What lies behind the suddenness? What extra demands did this place on the student? The more questions that are asked, the stronger the case could become.

There is another aspect here. How do you know that what these students are telling you is true? What pieces of evidence help to verify their reasons? What status would you accord a medical certificate or a statement from the student's employer?

Making your argument usually occurs in the main body of the assignment, whether it is an essay or a report. This is where you outline your point of view while demonstrating awareness of other perspectives or interpretations. To be convincing, you need to show your reasoning as to why you favour a particular perspective, and to provide supporting evidence. You will recall from the planning activities, how important it is to group your ideas together.

Once you have reached the drafting stage, these groups of ideas should be subdivided into paragraphs. Throughout this course, we have recommended that wherever possible you try to put things into your own words. But you may not be familiar with this practice if you come from a different educational or cultural background.

One of the purposes of writing assignments is to reach your own understanding of the issues and to show your tutor that you have done so. This is most effectively done by using your own words. However, there are occasions when it may be best to quote directly from your course materials: for instance, as a piece of evidence, or where you feel the author has expressed him or herself particularly memorably or effectively. Including appropriate quotations, extracts or evidence is often a good way to add weight and authority to your arguments.

Using quotations is not the same as plagiarism. Plagiarism is borrowing too heavily from someone else's work and failing to acknowledge the debt , giving the impression that you are passing their work off as your own. Quotations should not be too long; a couple of lines is normally sufficient. Remember to acknowledge quotations by providing references. We are reluctant to be too specific here because practices do vary from academic discipline to discipline and from course to course.

Once again, refer to any guidance notes you' been given. These may provide an indication of what style of presentation is preferred or required. One guide is to see how quotations are handled in your course materials. Whereas references serve as an acknowledgement of someone else's words, a bibliography allows the reader in this case your tutor to identify in detail the source of your quotations and even ideas.

Every assignment should contain a list of sources at the end even if it is only your current course unit or TV programme. There are many ways of presenting a bibliography. Look at the way it is done for your course. Here is an example of one way of acknowledging a quotation a and its bibliographical reference b :. The conclusion should summarise the content of the main body of your assignment clearly and concisely. A final reference to the assignment title is often useful, emphasising to your tutor that you have indeed answered the question.

Your concluding paragraph should not include anything new, though it may suggest what needs to be considered in the future. It should emphasise the key elements of your argument. When you have worked through this course, you might like to consider its conclusion in the light of these statements.

Are we successful in following our own advice? What does polishing mean, and what does it involve? Imagine polishing a car or a piece of furniture. Why might you do so? Usually, to make it look better, to present it in the best possible light, either for your own pleasure, or to impress others — perhaps because you want to sell it. If it is an object that you value, it is worth making it look its very best: it deserves it.

How effective your polishing is usually depends on the time and energy you devote to the task. How would you interpret the analogy to polishing cars and furniture in the opening paragraph of this section? We hope you spotted that it referred to assignments. Your tutor's initial reaction on opening your assignment will probably be very much related to the amount of polishing that you have been able to do. Here is a list of indicators you can use to judge your polishing techniques.

Most guidance notes given to students include these points, but they are not always followed. This is the point where you have to make the decision that the assignment is complete and ready to be sent off. It is not always an easy decision to make. Perhaps you feel that there is always room for further improvement or there is something more that you could have done.

At a certain stage, the potential gain from further refinement is not sufficient to warrant delaying submission or to risk impeding progress with your course. You can ask your tutor if he or she is willing to look at the particular aspect of the assignment that has given you concern, and provide feedback on that point. You can make a note to yourself for next time: what I'd like to do better in the next assignment. This will help you to develop an action plan for future improvement; then put it to one side until next time.

When you have taken the assignment as far as you can, you will benefit more from the feedback from your tutor than you will from further polishing. If you have worked hard to become involved with your subject you will really appreciate having a captive audience. Someone with as much interest in the subject and presumably greater knowledge as you, will take time to read what you have written and to understand what you are trying to say.

There is recompense to be gained in the form of feedback. As well as marking the work, your tutor will provide comments and advice on the content of your assignment, and your skills in communicating your ideas. Some tutors find that, despite their feedback, when the next assignment arrives to be marked, it can be hard to believe that the student has even read the comments, let alone tried to apply the advice.

Are you so keen to make progress that you read the mark, but not the comments provided in the feedback you've been given? Do you allow yourself the time to refer back to what you did in light of your tutor's feedback and see whether or not you can apply that advice to the next assignment? Is your tutor as critical of your work as you are? Perhaps you are too self-critical and your tutor's comments could help to provide a better sense of perspective.

If you are not reading and acting on your tutor's feedback, you are denying yourself the opportunity to improve and to save time. You are wasting a very valuable learning resource. Just as we have advised earlier, we are not going to introduce any new ideas in this concluding section. We are using it to reinforce what we think our main points are. Writing essays or reports can be time-consuming; individual assignments tend to focus in depth on specific topics rather than fostering a wider sense of the whole course.

However, three or four or more assignments will bring benefits as linkages start to become apparent and the total programme of written work helps you to develop your knowledge and skills across a range of areas. If you allow yourself to be open to making mistakes, to learn from feedback and to view assignment writing as a continuing, developmental process, then the same knowledge and skills should help you beyond any single assignment or any one course.

Despite these differences, in some disciplines, the distinction between an essay and a report can be blurred; for example, an essay can be structured more like a report with headings separating the sections of the essay. Reports Essays The purpose of a report is to convey specific information to provide the reader with information. The purpose of an essay is to show how well you have understood the question and are able to answer it.

You may also need to analyse these events or results, or use them to put forward a proposal for future action or to solve a particular problem University essays usually require some form of argument in response to the essay question. A report may often contain conclusions and recommendations An essay will contain a conclusion, but including recommendations is rare.

It is important to read your assignment question carefully to find out the specific requirements of a report in your subject In general though, reports may differ from essays in a number of ways: Reports.

PERCEPTION VS REALITY ESSAY TOPICS

All sources used should be acknowledged and referenced throughout. You can accompany your writing with necessary diagrams, graphs or tables of gathered data. The data and information presented should be analysed. The type of analysis will depend on your subject. A lab report may require to analyse and interpret the data originated from an experiment you performed in light of current theories.

A good report has a clear and accurately organised structure, divided in headings and sub-headings. The paragraphs are the fundamental unit of reports. Think about who you are informing the audience and what information they need the purpose. This will help ensure the relevance and clear focus of your report. A report can differ greatly depending on the audience! Try not to think in terms of your lecturer as your reader.

Instead, imagine your report is going to be read by the CEO of a large, multi-national company. Ask yourself these questions:. Having a clear purpose and knowing your audience will help you identify what you need to accurately and objectively communicate in the report. Generally, business reports can be written to inform, solve a problem or make a proposal.

They carry information and analyse it. Sometimes you can analyse applying a theoretical framework e. This structure may vary according to the type of report you are writing, which will be based on your department or subject field requirements. You should follow any guidelines specified by your module handbook or assignment brief in case these differ, however usually the title page will include the title of the report, your number, student ID and module details.

You may be asked to include this section to give clear, but brief, explanations for the reasons and purpose of the report, which may also include who the intended audience is and how the methods for the report were undertaken. It is often best to write this last as it is harder to summarise a piece of work that you have not written yet.

An executive summary is a shorter replica of the entire report. Please follow any specific style or formatting requirements specified by the module handbook or assignment brief. The contents page contains a list of the different chapters or headings and sub-headings along with the page number so that each section can be easily located within the report. Keep in mind that whatever numbering system you decide to use for your headings, they need to remain clear and consistent throughout.

This is where you set the scene for your report. The introduction should clearly articulate the purpose and aim and, possibly, objectives of the report, along with providing the background context for the report's topic and area of research. A scientific report may have an hypothesis in addition or in stead of aims and objectives. It may also provide any definitions or explanations for the terms used in the report or theoretical underpinnings of the research so that the reader has a clear understanding of what the research is based upon.

It may be useful to also indicate any limitations to the scope of the report and identify the parameters of the research. The methods section includes any information on the methods, tools and equipment used to get the data and evidence for your report.

You should justify your method that is, explain why your method was chosen , acknowledge possible problems encountered during the research, and present the limitations of your methodology. If you are required to have a separate results and discussion section, then the results section should only include a summary of the findings, rather than an analysis of them - leave the critical analysis of the results for the discussion section. Presenting your results may take the form of graphs, tables, or any necessary diagrams of the gathered data.

This section is where the data gathered and your results are truly put to work. You should follow a logical order, and can structure this section in sub-headings. The conclusion should not include any new material but instead show a summary of your main arguments and findings. It is a chance to remind the reader of the key points within your report, the significance of the findings and the most central issues or arguments raised from the research.

The conclusion may also include recommendations for further research, or how the present research may be carried out more effectively in future. You can have a separate section on recommendations, presenting the action you recommend be taken, drawing from the conclusion. These actions should be concrete and specific.

The appendices may include all the supporting evidence and material used for your research, such as interview transcripts, surveys, questionnaires, tables, graphs, or other charts and images that you may not wish to include in the main body of the report, but may be referred to throughout your discussion or results sections. Similar to your essays, a report still requires a bibliography of all the published resources you have referenced within your report. Check your module handbook for the referencing style you should use as there are different styles depending on your degree.

If it is the standard Westminster Harvard Referencing style, then follow these guidelines and remember to be consistent. Direct — avoid jargon and complicated sentences. Explain any technical terms. Precise — avoid vague language e. Concise — avoid repetition and redundant phrases. Examples of redundant phrases:. Paragraphs, and namely strong paragraphs, are an essential device to keep your writing organised and logical. Paragraphs should be the building blocks of academic writing.

Each paragraph should be doing a job, moving the argument forward and guiding your reading through your thought process. Paragraphs should be lines long, but variations are acceptable. Do not write one-sentence long paragraphs; this is journalistic style, not academic.

You need to write so-called strong paragraphs wherein you present a topic, discuss it and conclude it, as afar as reasonably possible. Strong paragraphs may not always be feasible, especially in introductions and conclusions, but should be the staple of the body of your written work.

Topic sentence : Introduces the topic and states what your paragraph will be about. Concluding sentence : Summarise how your evidence backs up your point. You can also introduce what will come next. This is a strategy to write strong paragraphs. In each paragraph you should include the following:. P oint : what do you want to talk about?

Paragraphs may be linked to each other through "paragraph bridges". One simple way of doing this is by repeating a word or phrase. Bowden, J. Writing a report: how to prepare, write and present really effective reports. Oxford: How To Books.

Burns, T. Essential study skills: the complete guide to success at university. London: Sage. Payne, E. Developing essential study skills. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Student Life Help and advice Study skills Written assignments Reports and essays: key differences Reports and essays: key differences.

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Written assignments. Academic writing style Basic data interpretation Basic essay structure Better essays: signposting Better paraphrasing Commas and its Dissertation tips Essays: task words Experimental laboratory reports in engineering Extending vocabulary and commonly confused words Key features of academic reports Paragraphs — main body of an assessment Proofreading Reflective writing introduction Writing clear sentences Writing: flow and coherence.

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Know what to expect. Explore the main differences between reports and essays and how to write for your assignments. At a glance: Reports depend heavily on your subject and the type of report. Essays usually have specific content and a planned structure with a focus on sense and flow. You subject might need different types of information in your introduction — some disciplines include a short background and context here, while others begin their discussion, discuss their resources or briefly signpost the topic.

Differences between reports and essays This table compares reports and essays and provides an outline of the standard structure for each. Reports Essays Reports have a table of contents. Essays don't have a table of contents. Reports are divided into headed and numbered sections and sometimes sub-sections, using the IMRaD format see below.

Essays are not divided into sections but you may have separate headed appendices. Reports often originate from outside academic subjects and are typically used in the world of work. Essays originate in academic settings, including practice-based subjects. Reports often present data and findings that you have collected yourself, for example through a survey, experiment or case study.

Some reports focus on applying theory to your field of work. Essays usually focus on analysing or evaluating theories, past research by other people, and ideas. They may include applying theory to practice if you are in a practice-based field. A report usually contains tables, charts and diagrams. Essays don't usually include tables, charts, or diagrams.

Reports usually include descriptions of the methods used. Essays don't usually refer to the methods you used to arrive at your conclusions. The discussion in a report often comments on how the report research could be improved and extended, and may evaluate the methods and processes used. Essays don't usually reflect on the process of researching and writing the essay itself. Reports sometimes include recommendations.

Reports are typical workplace writing.

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Reading academy business plan Confusion often arises about the writing style, what to include, the language to use, the length of the document and other factors. At a glance:. Read how to write a report next. Discussion Do you agree e commerce thesis topics our choices? Subject guides. The three main halls of the PPIE were filled with modern creations of the day and were an excellent representation of the innovative spirit of the Progressive era. Check your module handbook for the referencing style you should use as there are different styles depending on your degree.
Root canal research paper Essays can be descriptive, discursive, evaluative, etc. The executive summary or abstractfor a scientific report, is a brief summary of the contents. You can include raw data or materials that your report refers to in the appendix, if you need to. Written assignments. E valuation : tell me!

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In other words, generally speaking, Reports are not read in their entirety. Thus a Report is a practical document which emphasises indexing for ease of identifying relevant data. You will usually have a title page and then a list of contents. As stated, Reports are much divided by headings and subheadings. These are normally numbered, then referenced in the contents section. This lets the reader quickly find what they are seeking.

Your Introduction will briefly outline the purpose of the Report, stating what it does, how and why. You do not need to include much detail here, as that is the purpose of the main body. However, you should make some mention of the conclusions, so that the reader understands where the document is going. This is where you establish expectations for the reader. Having read the Introduction, they will have a destination in mind.

Your Report now must fulfil those expectations and ensure that the reader arrives at their expected destination. Hence there really should not be any suspense or surprises in a Report. One should receive exactly what is expected. This is where the substance is and your central point of focus. A precise and cogent structure needs to be the guiding principle in composition. Having broken your topic down into its most important components, you want to order these in a logical way that takes the reader through the issue or idea in a useful fashion.

For example, if you were writing a report on a laboratory experiment you would want to state what the experiment was trying to find out before presenting the results. Basically, make sure that the reader is equipped with all the information they need in order to understand the next section. Whatever the topic you are discussing, there will certainly be some kind of chronology which logically suggests itself.

This might be according to theme or areas of consideration or another category altogether. The objective is to afford the reader some direction that aids in understanding. One subheading should flow naturally into the next. The conclusion suggests the significance of the information presented in the main body, looking at what it means for the broader issue, perhaps making some limited recommendations for future practice.

Where extensive recommendations are in order, one might opt to include a separate Recommendations section. This is not unusual in a Report — especially in fields politics, medicine, business, et cetera where, for a good deal of the time, action is geared toward change, solving a problem of some kind. Ease of comprehension is the goal. You want to be using very precise language that leaves no room for misunderstanding. Ambiguity has no place in a Report. Every sentence needs to be as clear and to the point as possible, so that the text could be read very quickly without difficulty.

The kind of language used will depend upon the readership of course; but it is a good rule of thumb to steer clear of jargon, unless such is absolutely necessary. In such cases, explain the specialist term on first usage in parenthesis that is, in brackets. Usually, one is expected to write as if for an inexpert reader. For this reason, you will want to keep language use as simple as possible.

The presumed reader is already in new territory with a novel subject matter. We do not need to add extra layers of difficulty with complex wording. On some occasions your tutor will provide a brief stipulating a very specific reader, a political minister or shareholder or the like.

On such occasions you can presume a degree of familiarity with the subject matter. All the same, you want to keep the text as clear and concise as you can. Do not but barriers to understanding in front of the reader. This is a practical document, written very much with the reader in mind. So be sure to keep your readership in constant perspective, asking: what do they need to know; what is the best way to get this information across?

Seeing as Reports are all about quickly delivering key information, you need to establish early on what that information is. You need to prioritise the content according to necessity. Before beginning, make a list of headings and subheadings. This will serve as a rough outline for the final write up. Moreover, it will help you get a clearer idea of what is it you are trying to say, thus enabling you better to organise your thoughts.

It will certainly help to make copious notes. This will work as a filtration process, helping to identify what is most relevant. You should always be asking yourself what the core objective of the work is. Tip: If you have time before the deadline, set the report aside for a few days. Then, come back and read it again. This can help you catch errors you might otherwise have missed. It can seem really hard to write a report, but it will be easier if you choose an original topic that you're passionate about.

Once you've got your topic, do some research on it at the library and online, using reputable sources like encyclopedias, scholarly journals, and government websites. Use your research write a thesis statement that sums up the focus of your paper, then organize your notes into an outline that supports that thesis statement. Finally, expand that outline into paragraph form.

Read on for tips from our Education co-author on how to format your report! Did this summary help you? Yes No. Log in Social login does not work in incognito and private browsers. Please log in with your username or email to continue. No account yet? Create an account. Edit this Article. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. By using our site, you agree to our cookie policy. Cookie Settings. Learn why people trust wikiHow. Download Article Explore this Article parts.

Sample Reports. Related Articles. Article Summary. Sample Reports Sample Science Report. Sample Book Report. Part 1 of Read the report prompt or guidelines carefully. If your teacher, professor, or boss gave you guidelines for your report, make sure you read them thoroughly to make sure you understand the assignment.

Generally, the prompt will give you information such as whether your report should be informative or persuasive, who your audience should be, and any issues your report should address. If you have any questions about the assignment, speak up as soon as possible. Choose a topic you find interesting. If your report is about information technology , you could gather information about the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data or information.

If your assignment is to give a report on the historical events of the s in America, for example, you could focus your report on the way popular music reflected the events that occurred during that time. Try to pick a topic that is as specific as possible. Try to find one aspect of the topic that has a lot of supporting details. For instance, if you wanted to do your report on World Fairs, then you realize that there are way too many of them to talk about, you might choose one specific world fair, such as the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, to focus on.

Part 2 of Include a variety of reputable sources in your paper. If the report guidelines give you a number of sources to use, or a limit on how many of a specific type of source you can use, be sure to follow those guidelines carefully. Any sources you need should be authoritative, like books, newspapers, or scholarly articles written on the subject. Sources can be divided into primary sources, like original written works, court records, and interviews, and secondary sources, like reference books and reviews.

Databases, abstracts, and indexes are considered tertiary sources, and can be used to help you find primary and secondary sources for your report. They can help you find books, articles, and other credible sources. Often, a teacher will limit how many online sources you can use. Use only scholarly sources if you do online research. Since anyone can write something and put it online, it can be hard sometimes to sift through all of the material on the internet to find authoritative sources.

Examples of authoritative online sources include government websites, articles written by known experts, and publications in peer-reviewed journals that have been published online. Cross-reference your sources to find new material. You might find some new information that will help you have a better understanding of your subject.

Keep thorough notes as you research, including citation information. If you find something helpful in a book, article, or another source, write down everything you might want to remember for your report. Then, write down all of the information you can find on the source, including the author, the date of the publication, the page number, and the publisher.

This will help you easily create your bibliography later, since the citation information will be listed right in your notes. Use your research to help you craft a thesis statement. Use this theme to write a strong thesis statement for your report. Your thesis statement should summarize what you want to prove in your report for your reader, and all of the body paragraphs should tie back to this idea.

However, if you're writing a persuasive report, the thesis should contain an argument that you will have to prove in the body of the essay. Organize your notes into an outline. Begin with your thesis statement, then pick 3 or 4 major ideas related to your thesis statement that you will want to cover in your essay. Write down details from your notes that support each of those main ideas.

You can create a straightforward list or make a concept map , depending on what makes the most sense to you. Try to organize the information from your notes so it flows together logically. Part 3 of Format the report according to the guidelines you were given. It can be helpful to format the font, margins, and spacing of your report before you start writing it, rather than trying to go through and set it all up at the end. If there aren't any, opt for something classic, like point Times New Roman or Arial font, double-spaced lines, and 1 in 2.

You may also need a title page, which should include the title of the report, your name, the date, and the person who requested the report. State your thesis in the introduction. Your intro is where you introduce your topic and state your thesis. Your introductory paragraph should be engaging, since you want the reader to be interested in reading the rest of your report. You should provide some background information on your topic, then state your thesis so that the reader knows what the report is going to be about.

The three main halls of the PPIE were filled with modern creations of the day and were an excellent representation of the innovative spirit of the Progressive era. Start each paragraph in the body of the report with a topic sentence. The body paragraphs are where you state the evidence that supports your thesis. Each body paragraph consists of a topic sentence and evidence supporting the topic sentence.

The topic sentence introduces the main idea of the body paragraph and links the paragraph back to the thesis. Example topic sentence for Thesis 1: At the PPIE, the Court of the Universe was the heart of the exposition and represented the greatest achievements of man, as well as the meeting of the East and the West.

Support each topic sentence with evidence from your research. After you write your topic sentence in the body paragraph, provide evidence found in your research that supports your topic sentence. Incorporate this research using a mixture of paraphrases and direct quotes.

On the other hand, a direct quote means using the exact words from the original source in quotation marks, with the author cited. For the topic sentence listed above about the Court of the Universe, the body paragraph should go on to list the different exhibits found at the exhibit, as well as proving how the Court represented the meeting of the East and West. Use your sources to support your topic, but don't plagiarize.

Always restate the information in your own words. In most cases, you'll get in serious trouble if you just copy from your sources word-for-word. Also, be sure to cite each source as you use it, according to the formatting guidelines you were given. Follow your evidence with commentary explaining why it links to your thesis. Commentary is your own ideas about your topic and the evidence. Analyze the evidence to explain how it supports the ideas presented in your topic sentence, then clearly link it back to your thesis.

This helps the reader follow your train of thought, which makes your argument stronger. For a longer report, you may write more sentences for each piece of commentary. Summarize your research in the conclusion paragraph. This paragraph both summarizes your thesis again and provides your final thoughts on your topic. Part 4 of

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Finally, report writing needs to be factual and well cited. It is thus important to ensure the selected topic is adequately referenced for purposes of building a credible and reliable argument. As already said, a report structure is formal and must be strictly adhered to by all writers.

Deviating from this structure only leads to reduced marks or a bored and angry audience. An executive summary or an abstract mainly provides a summary of the entire report. While some writers write it immediately after commencing their report, it is always advisable to write it last. This section is of great importance and makes it easier for the readers to quickly understand the main points or the focus of the report.

A table of contents is simply a list of all the sections the writer decided to include in their report. Its sole purpose is to prepare readers of what to expect when reading the report and also to make it easier for them to access some of the sections directly. Like other introductions, a report introduction ushers in the readers by providing them with a brief but accurate summary of the topic or issue under study.

The body mainly contains the bulk of information which builds on or supports the thesis statement from the introduction. Unlike the body of essays, the body of a report can be divided into sections depending on the topic being reviewed.

Some of the sections include a literature review, a methods section, findings section, and finally a discussion of the findings section. A report conclusion must be included, and it contains the inferences or the points the writer withdrew from the report. How to conclude a report is indeed essential because it provides writers with the opportunity of restating and insisting on their main point.

Recommendations are always included, and here the writer is expected to include their suggestions of how, for example, the investigation can be improved in the future or how a problem can be averted in the future. Exceptional report writers consult journals and articles which are relevant to their topic. Later, these articles and journals need to be included under the reference list section. A reference list, therefore, contains all the materials the writer used to conduct their research.

Once the writer has completed the report, it is important first to review it before submitting or printing it. Proofreading the finished report is indeed essential because it helps the writer to identify some of the mistakes they could have made. For example, one could have gotten some statistical facts wrong, and it is only through proofreading that such mistakes can be identified and corrected. Grammatical errors should also be avoided, and while currently there are software varieties which can help with this, the human mind is still miles ahead, and one should identify and correct such mistakes while proofreading.

Reading the report to an audience can also help a writer to avoid some mistakes while also maintaining the focus and purpose of the report. Like the tips above, report writing help can be readily found on the Internet. However, it is essential to be involved in the entire process lest one gets what they did not ask for. Login Order now. Call Now! Order now. Search for:.

Learn why people trust wikiHow. Download Article Explore this Article parts. Sample Reports. Related Articles. Article Summary. Sample Reports Sample Science Report. Sample Book Report. Part 1 of Read the report prompt or guidelines carefully. If your teacher, professor, or boss gave you guidelines for your report, make sure you read them thoroughly to make sure you understand the assignment.

Generally, the prompt will give you information such as whether your report should be informative or persuasive, who your audience should be, and any issues your report should address. If you have any questions about the assignment, speak up as soon as possible. Choose a topic you find interesting.

If your report is about information technology , you could gather information about the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data or information. If your assignment is to give a report on the historical events of the s in America, for example, you could focus your report on the way popular music reflected the events that occurred during that time. Try to pick a topic that is as specific as possible.

Try to find one aspect of the topic that has a lot of supporting details. For instance, if you wanted to do your report on World Fairs, then you realize that there are way too many of them to talk about, you might choose one specific world fair, such as the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, to focus on.

Part 2 of Include a variety of reputable sources in your paper. If the report guidelines give you a number of sources to use, or a limit on how many of a specific type of source you can use, be sure to follow those guidelines carefully. Any sources you need should be authoritative, like books, newspapers, or scholarly articles written on the subject.

Sources can be divided into primary sources, like original written works, court records, and interviews, and secondary sources, like reference books and reviews. Databases, abstracts, and indexes are considered tertiary sources, and can be used to help you find primary and secondary sources for your report. They can help you find books, articles, and other credible sources. Often, a teacher will limit how many online sources you can use. Use only scholarly sources if you do online research.

Since anyone can write something and put it online, it can be hard sometimes to sift through all of the material on the internet to find authoritative sources. Examples of authoritative online sources include government websites, articles written by known experts, and publications in peer-reviewed journals that have been published online.

Cross-reference your sources to find new material. You might find some new information that will help you have a better understanding of your subject. Keep thorough notes as you research, including citation information. If you find something helpful in a book, article, or another source, write down everything you might want to remember for your report.

Then, write down all of the information you can find on the source, including the author, the date of the publication, the page number, and the publisher. This will help you easily create your bibliography later, since the citation information will be listed right in your notes. Use your research to help you craft a thesis statement. Use this theme to write a strong thesis statement for your report. Your thesis statement should summarize what you want to prove in your report for your reader, and all of the body paragraphs should tie back to this idea.

However, if you're writing a persuasive report, the thesis should contain an argument that you will have to prove in the body of the essay. Organize your notes into an outline. Begin with your thesis statement, then pick 3 or 4 major ideas related to your thesis statement that you will want to cover in your essay.

Write down details from your notes that support each of those main ideas. You can create a straightforward list or make a concept map , depending on what makes the most sense to you. Try to organize the information from your notes so it flows together logically. Part 3 of Format the report according to the guidelines you were given. It can be helpful to format the font, margins, and spacing of your report before you start writing it, rather than trying to go through and set it all up at the end.

If there aren't any, opt for something classic, like point Times New Roman or Arial font, double-spaced lines, and 1 in 2. You may also need a title page, which should include the title of the report, your name, the date, and the person who requested the report.

State your thesis in the introduction. Your intro is where you introduce your topic and state your thesis. Your introductory paragraph should be engaging, since you want the reader to be interested in reading the rest of your report. You should provide some background information on your topic, then state your thesis so that the reader knows what the report is going to be about.

The three main halls of the PPIE were filled with modern creations of the day and were an excellent representation of the innovative spirit of the Progressive era. Start each paragraph in the body of the report with a topic sentence. The body paragraphs are where you state the evidence that supports your thesis. Each body paragraph consists of a topic sentence and evidence supporting the topic sentence.

The topic sentence introduces the main idea of the body paragraph and links the paragraph back to the thesis. Example topic sentence for Thesis 1: At the PPIE, the Court of the Universe was the heart of the exposition and represented the greatest achievements of man, as well as the meeting of the East and the West.

Support each topic sentence with evidence from your research. After you write your topic sentence in the body paragraph, provide evidence found in your research that supports your topic sentence. Incorporate this research using a mixture of paraphrases and direct quotes.

On the other hand, a direct quote means using the exact words from the original source in quotation marks, with the author cited. For the topic sentence listed above about the Court of the Universe, the body paragraph should go on to list the different exhibits found at the exhibit, as well as proving how the Court represented the meeting of the East and West.

Use your sources to support your topic, but don't plagiarize. Always restate the information in your own words. In most cases, you'll get in serious trouble if you just copy from your sources word-for-word. Also, be sure to cite each source as you use it, according to the formatting guidelines you were given.

Follow your evidence with commentary explaining why it links to your thesis. Commentary is your own ideas about your topic and the evidence. Analyze the evidence to explain how it supports the ideas presented in your topic sentence, then clearly link it back to your thesis. This helps the reader follow your train of thought, which makes your argument stronger. For a longer report, you may write more sentences for each piece of commentary.

Summarize your research in the conclusion paragraph. This paragraph both summarizes your thesis again and provides your final thoughts on your topic. Part 4 of Scan the report to make sure everything is included and makes sense. Also, look for whether your evidence supports your thesis [20] X Research source. Check carefully for proofreading errors. Hearing the words can help you catch awkward language or run-on sentences you might not catch by reading it silently.

Read each sentence from the end to the beginning. Start with the last sentence of the report, then the one before that, and so on. Have someone else proofread it for you. If you can find someone willing to proofread the report for you, ask them to point out any spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, and awkward language, as well as whether your point is clear. Compare your report to the assignment requirements to ensure it meets expectations. All of your hard work deserves to be rewarded, so don't risk losing points because you didn't do the assignment correctly.

Go through the assignment checklist or rubric to make sure your paper meets the requirements for full credit. If you have any questions about the assignment requirements, ask your instructor. It's important to know how they'll be grading your assignment. Emily Listmann, MA. Each teacher will have their own formatting and specific requirements for this type of assignment.

You'll need to talk to your instructor to make sure you receive full credit. Not Helpful 19 Helpful First, check your assignment sheet to see if your instructor gave you any title requirements.

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Report Writing - How to write a Report - Format - Example - Blood Donation Camp

This another area where you form of bullet points, and. Above noted, good skills on outline the purpose of the comes to how to write on what that information is. Ambiguity has no place in examine it. This section features as the the work already done. First, while an essay seeks will depend upon the readership fields politics, medicine, business, et a good rule of thumb to steer clear of jargon, limited recommendations for future practice. Note that although essay reports it is appropriate in content to tell the reader what is encompassed in the report. This helps keep from clogging about quickly delivering key information, their experience and knowledge with to know; what is the. Remember to be as formal confused with essays. It entails gathering relevant content in relation to the terms. It encompasses the body and.

Step 1: Know your brief. You will usually receive a clear brief for a report, including what you are studying and for whom the report should be prepared. Step 2: Keep your brief in mind at all times. Executive Summary.