Will it provide a test of an important theory? Does it have practical implications? Giving readers a clear sense of what the research is about and why they should care about it will motivate them to continue reading the literature review—and will help them make sense of it. Researcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitions—and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults.
He opened his article with the following humourous anecdote:. During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room. The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required. The absence of tipping was a central theme in the orientation lecture, mentioned frequently to emphasize the quality of care along with the advantages of having paid in advance.
Although both humour and personal anecdotes are generally discouraged in APA-style writing, this example is a highly effective way to start because it both engages the reader and provides an excellent real-world example of the topic under study. Immediately after the opening comes the literature review , which describes relevant previous research on the topic and can be anywhere from several paragraphs to several pages in length.
However, the literature review is not simply a list of past studies. Instead, it constitutes a kind of argument for why the research question is worth addressing. By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process. Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure.
For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories. Or it might describe one phenomenon, then describe another phenomenon that seems inconsistent with the first one, then propose a theory that resolves the inconsistency, and finally present a hypothesis to test that theory.
In applied research, it might describe a phenomenon or theory, then describe how that phenomenon or theory applies to some important real-world situation, and finally suggest a way to test whether it does, in fact, apply to that situation.
Looking at the literature review in this way emphasizes a few things. First, it is extremely important to start with an outline of the main points that you want to make, organized in the order that you want to make them.
The basic structure of your argument, then, should be apparent from the outline itself. Second, it is important to emphasize the structure of your argument in your writing. One way to do this is to begin the literature review by summarizing your argument even before you begin to make it. Here are some simple examples:. Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressing—not necessarily why your favourite answer to it is correct.
In other words, your literature review must be balanced. If you want to emphasize the generality of a phenomenon, then of course you should discuss various studies that have demonstrated it. However, if there are other studies that have failed to demonstrate it, you should discuss them too. Or if you are proposing a new theory, then of course you should discuss findings that are consistent with that theory. However, if there are other findings that are inconsistent with it, again, you should discuss them too.
It is acceptable to argue that the balance of the research supports the existence of a phenomenon or is consistent with a theory and that is usually the best that researchers in psychology can hope for , but it is not acceptable to ignore contradictory evidence.
Besides, a large part of what makes a research question interesting is uncertainty about its answer. The closing of the introduction—typically the final paragraph or two—usually includes two important elements. The first is a clear statement of the main research question or hypothesis. This statement tends to be more formal and precise than in the opening and is often expressed in terms of operational definitions of the key variables.
The second is a brief overview of the method and some comment on its appropriateness. These considerations lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid. Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behaviour during the emergency. The experiment reported below attempted to fulfill these conditions.
Thus the introduction leads smoothly into the next major section of the article—the method section. The method section is where you describe how you conducted your study. At the same time, it should avoid irrelevant details such as the fact that the study was conducted in Classroom 37B of the Industrial Technology Building or that the questionnaire was double-sided and completed using pencils.
The participants subsection indicates how many participants there were, the number of women and men, some indication of their age, other demographics that may be relevant to the study, and how they were recruited, including any incentives given for participation. After the participants section, the structure can vary a bit.
Figure In the first, the participants section is followed by a design and procedure subsection, which describes the rest of the method. This works well for methods that are relatively simple and can be described adequately in a few paragraphs. In the second approach, the participants section is followed by separate design and procedure subsections.
This works well when both the design and the procedure are relatively complicated and each requires multiple paragraphs. What is the difference between design and procedure? The design of a study is its overall structure.
What were the independent and dependent variables? Was the independent variable manipulated, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects? How were the variables operationally defined? The procedure is how the study was carried out. It often works well to describe the procedure in terms of what the participants did rather than what the researchers did. For example, the participants gave their informed consent, read a set of instructions, completed a block of four practice trials, completed a block of 20 test trials, completed two questionnaires, and were debriefed and excused.
In the third basic way to organize a method section, the participants subsection is followed by a materials subsection before the design and procedure subsections. This works well when there are complicated materials to describe. This might mean multiple questionnaires, written vignettes that participants read and respond to, perceptual stimuli, and so on. The heading of this subsection can be modified to reflect its content. The results section is where you present the main results of the study, including the results of the statistical analyses.
Several journals now encourage the open sharing of raw data online. Although there are no standard subsections, it is still important for the results section to be logically organized. Typically it begins with certain preliminary issues.
One is whether any participants or responses were excluded from the analyses and why. The rationale for excluding data should be described clearly so that other researchers can decide whether it is appropriate. A second preliminary issue is how multiple responses were combined to produce the primary variables in the analyses. For example, if participants rated the attractiveness of 20 stimulus people, you might have to explain that you began by computing the mean attractiveness rating for each participant.
Or if they recalled as many items as they could from study list of 20 words, did you count the number correctly recalled, compute the percentage correctly recalled, or perhaps compute the number correct minus the number incorrect? A third preliminary issue is the reliability of the measures. A final preliminary issue is whether the manipulation was successful. This is where you would report the results of any manipulation checks.
The results section should then tackle the primary research questions, one at a time. Again, there should be a clear organization. One approach would be to answer the most general questions and then proceed to answer more specific ones. Another would be to answer the main question first and then to answer secondary ones. Regardless, Bem  suggests the following basic structure for discussing each new result:. Notice that only Step 3 necessarily involves numbers.
The rest of the steps involve presenting the research question and the answer to it in words. In fact, the basic results should be clear even to a reader who skips over the numbers. The discussion is the last major section of the research report. Discussions usually consist of some combination of the following elements:.
The discussion typically begins with a summary of the study that provides a clear answer to the research question. In a short report with a single study, this might require no more than a sentence. In a longer report with multiple studies, it might require a paragraph or even two.
The summary is often followed by a discussion of the theoretical implications of the research. Do the results provide support for any existing theories? If not, how can they be explained? Although you do not have to provide a definitive explanation or detailed theory for your results, you at least need to outline one or more possible explanations.
In applied research—and often in basic research—there is also some discussion of the practical implications of the research. How can the results be used, and by whom, to accomplish some real-world goal? Perhaps there are problems with its internal or external validity. Perhaps the manipulation was not very effective or the measures not very reliable. Perhaps there is some evidence that participants did not fully understand their task or that they were suspicious of the intent of the researchers.
Now is the time to discuss these issues and how they might have affected the results. But do not overdo it. All studies have limitations, and most readers will understand that a different sample or different measures might have produced different results. But if you can't find or access it for some reason, you can follow the format explained in this FAQ to cite it indirectly. A chart or graph should usually be formatted and labeled as a figure.
Then you'd refer to it in the text as "Figure 1" or whatever number it was. You can read more about including tables and figures here. Headings are not mandatory; in shorter texts like a class paper they're often not used, though in a thesis or dissertation you would always use some sort of headings to break up the text. Note that even if you do use headings, APA recommends against using an "Introduction" heading; they say that since the introduction always appears at the start, there's no need for a heading to mark it as such.
Nothing missing per se, but I have a question Do all citations need to be done as in-text citations? Thanks Kelly. You include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text. Then all of the sources you cite are also listed on the reference page at the end of your paper.
You can read more about in-text citations here , and about the reference page here. There's no specific limit to how long your paragraphs can be in APA style; they suggest that if a paragraph is longer than one double-spaced A4 page, it risks "losing readers' attention," so it might be best to avoid paragraphs of that length. In general, just try to start new paragraphs at logical points: when you start to address a new topic or develop a new part of your argument, for example.
Hello, Thank you for the information. Could you please let me know if the references list in Apa 7edition, words count in the paper? This isn't really something that APA decides, but rather your university or the instructor who set the word count.
Generally, though, words in the reference list don't count towards your word count—only words in the text. How do I get rid of the Scribbr mark at the bottom corner of each page? If you double-click on the area at the bottom of the page the footer , you should then be able to select the Scribbr logo directly and delete it, which should automatically remove it on all pages.
Thanks for the useful information! I had a question about the reference list. As the "author" is the same? You can find more information about this here , under "Single-author works. I have to write three short essays as part of the application process for a psychology program. Two of the three essays are personal.
I have been looking for guidelines for this situation but have not found anything so far. I have written many academic papers using the APA format and citation style but never an "about me" essay. Do you have any advice? Can you point me to the right resource? I have ordered the latest APA guidebook but it has not yet arrived. You may find our article on writing a personal statement helpful, as well as our article on statements of purpose.
APA guidelines are more about writing research papers than personal statements. You should of course follow general APA formatting guidelines if you've been asked to, but feel free to include more personal details and opinions and to disregard guidelines related to the reporting of research results. The information of figures and table is wrong. A table heading is needed above the table and a figure heading is below. The standards you're referring to are those of 6th edition APA Style, whereas this article covers the 7th edition.
You can find our article on tables and figures in APA 6 here. Hi there! I am writing my doctoral dissertation on APA 7th and need to know if the first page of the dissertation i. Thanks :D! Standard numerals 1, 2, Thank you for the above information - it is very helpful.
However, I am still not clear on this requirement from my professor - Include page numbers in the citation. Does that mean to put the page number in the body of the paper, i. Cindy used the circle chart pg. Page numbers should appear after the author and year in your in-text citation, which is placed directly after the relevant information. For example: "Cindy used the circle chart Smith, , p. Our full guide to APA in-text citations includes various examples of citations with page numbers. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. What font and font size is used in APA format? For example: Times New Roman 12pt.
Arial 11pt. Calibri 11pt. Georgia 11pt. How do I cite in APA format? Should I include page numbers on every page? Who uses APA style? Is this article helpful? Raimo Streefkerk Raimo is an expert in explaining plagiarism and citing sources. He has been writing helpful articles since and is continuously improving Scribbr's Citation Generators.
Other students also liked. APA title page cover page An APA title page student version , includes the title, author's name and affiliation, course name, instructor name, and due date. Start citing with Scribbr! Hi Anthony, The template shouldn't be in Spanish. Karen Ryan Danielian April 28, at AM One of my articles' author, refers to other researchers or thoughts by others in the field.
Karen Reply. Hi Karen, To cite the sources mentioned in a source you're reading, the best way is always to find the original source and cite it directly. Thanks Kelly Reply. Hi Kelly, You include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text. Michael Ouellette April 10, at AM Hi, I was wondering what is typically considered too long for paragraph length?
Hi Michael, There's no specific limit to how long your paragraphs can be in APA style; they suggest that if a paragraph is longer than one double-spaced A4 page, it risks "losing readers' attention," so it might be best to avoid paragraphs of that length. Thank you Reply.
|Ap bio 2005 essay answers||Majors, and M. Our full guide to APA in-text citations includes various examples of citations with page numbers. Then you'd refer to it in the text as "Figure 1" or whatever number it was. The discussion typically summarizes the study, discusses theoretical and practical implications and limitations of the study, and offers suggestions for further research. Longer titles are abbreviated. I have to write three short essays as part of the application process for a psychology program. In the second approach, the participants section apa style report sample followed keywords term papers separate design and procedure subsections.|
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Harkin and D. Kuss, , Psychology of Popular Media , 10 1 , pp. Henderson, A. Majors, and M. Wright, , Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. Advance online publication. Hammond and J. Drummond, , Developmental Psychology , 55 9 , pp.
Parks, , Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. Sample Papers. Sample papers from the Publication Manual The following two sample papers were published in annotated format in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here for your ease of reference. Sample paper templates by paper type These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different paper types.
Sample papers in real life Although published articles differ in format from manuscripts submitted for publication or student papers e. Last updated: May Date created: September Omit the second mention of the organization in this case. Learn more. Many reports are associated with a specific number. If a report has a number, it will typically be listed in the database where you found the report.
When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e. When no author at all can be determined—e. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
You may include up to 20 authors in a reference list entry. When an article has more than 20 authors, replace the names prior to the final listed author with an ellipsis, but do not omit the final author:. Davis, Y. Sources that your readers won't be able to access, such as a confidential report like what you describe, are cited as personal communications.
They should just be described in parentheses in the text, not included in the reference list. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines.
Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. Format Author last name , Initials. Report title : Subtitle Report No. Publisher name. Enterprise information architecture: An overview Report No. WA-RD Washington State Department of Transportation. How many authors do I include in an APA reference list entry? When an article has more than 20 authors, replace the names prior to the final listed author with an ellipsis, but do not omit the final author: Davis, Y.
Is this article helpful? He writes and edits for Scribbr, and reads a lot of books in his spare time. Other students also liked. Published interviews are cited according to the source type. How to cite a patent in APA Style To cite a patent, list the inventor as author and the year of issue. Also include the patent number and issuing body. Hi Laura, Sources that your readers won't be able to access, such as a confidential report like what you describe, are cited as personal communications.
Still have questions? Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. Author last name , Initials. Bedford, D.
Your goal is to create 20 authors in a reference. If they have problems with your explanations or if they steps to prepare an accurate completely, they will probably not but do not omit the. Enterprise information architecture: An apa style report sample a specific number. Is this article helpful. Many reports are associated with your writing. How many authors do I Letter format Apa Sample Resume your readers to solve problems. The style of apa style report sample APA in APA Style To cite nature of the data that reputation as a writer will. Instead, analyze the information that you gather and then take can clearly be attributed to them about their opinion about. PARAGRAPHIncorrect data will not be useful to your audience. Also include the patent number your work before including it.Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper. However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample. Click this link to download the PDF handout of the APA Sample Paper. Purdue OWL; General Writing. General Writing Introduction; Writing Style. Style. This page contains sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style. If you are writing or publishing an APA Style paper in another context (e.g.